The 12 principles of Animation are as follows:
- Used for things like a pendulum, an arrow and the human body.
- A lot of things move on an arc, the human body using an arc most prominently as joints tend to follow an arc in their movements.
- Used to create tension and make the audience anticipate the coming action.
- Can be used for things like running, jumping and throwing.
- Used to direct the attention of the viewer.
- Helps to establish mood and create focus in a scene.
4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose
- This technique needs to be planned out as it involves creating key frames and then filling in the area's in-between.
- This can make the animation look more close to life and adds realism.
5. Squash and Stretch
- Used when Animating things like a ball bouncing. The ball is stretched as it heads to and from the ground and is squashed when it hits the ground.
- Used to show weight in the objects
6. Follow Through and Overlapping Action
- Things stop at different times.
- A character that's running will stop before the clothes will as the clothes with move with the movement of the character, fanning out in front of them before falling still.
- Another example would be a character spinning in a skirt as when the character stills the skirt will twirl loosely for a few seconds after.
7. Slow In and Slow Out
- This makes a more realistic movement as the object or person will slowly pick up speed and slowly decrease speed much like in life.
8. Timing (and Spacing)
- Timing is the amount of time taken to get from A to Z. Timing is effected by how many frames are placed in the Animation.
- Spacing is how it gets from A to Z. Spacing is effected by the way the frames are placing within the animation. Closer frames means slower action whereas more spaced out frames make the action faster.
9. Secondary Action
- Secondary actions support the primary action without drawing attention away from them.
- An example of this would be somebody running as the primary action and the secondary action would then be their arms moving forwards and backwards.
- A characters appeal can come from many different factors including the characters appearance and personality.
- The way they move can also effect the appeal they have to the audience.
11. Solid Drawing
- These are the principles of drawing that allow for things like tone and shade that will allow the 2D animation to feel and look more 3D.
- Exaggeration should fit the mood and tone of the scene it is in.
- It can make a scene look more fluid and appealing as it may look stiff without the exaggeration.